Richard K Root Memorial

Richard K. Root, world-renowned physician, died in the pursuit to fight AIDS in Africa. This site is dedicated to furthering his work combatting infectious diseases throughout the world. To post a lead article on the site, email Richard Allen Root at rootrootie@yahoo.com, or click into any "comment" line. Dr. Richard Kay Root might be gone, but his fight against world disease has just begun. Log in here, speak out, and make a difference.

Name:
Location: California, United States

Monday, April 10, 2006

Response by Dr. Sean Kay

"...I have spent the last two years on a book project that has a primary emphasis on on the relationship between transnational disease, health, and national security. By 2005, there was an estimated shortage of 4 million healthcare workers in the underdeveloped world..."

Richard (Allen Root),

I was very moved in reading your initial blog input about Dick Root, my second cousin. I've come to interact with him over the years, and likewise have found myself mesmorized by the story, and deeply saddened by the loss.

I think a lot of how the Root family has been there for ours, first for my father and aunts and uncles when their mother died at a young age, then recently with the passing of my grandfather Dr. Earle B. Kay, and most recently my uncle Richard Kay. Dick Root was always there as a pillar of support for our family, and we are all better people for it. But more than that, I wanted to add a professional comment.

I spent the last two years working on a book project which has among other things, a primary emphasis on the relationship between transnational disease, health and international security. HIV/AIDS in Africa - as well as the other killer and preventable diseases there such as TB and Malaria - are issues that are major challenges for us here in the United States and in the rest of the developed world. By 2005 there was an estimated shortate of 4 million healthcare workers in the underdeveloped world. And this is not for a lack of ability. There are, for example, more Malawian doctors working in Manchester, England, than actually working in the country of Malawi. Of 600 doctors trained in Zambia, only fifty had stayed in that country. In Uganda, there is only one nurse for every 11,000 people.

In Africa, in order to even begin to grapple with the HIV/AIDS crisis, a massive amounts of new health workers of various skill levels are needed. Educating people to provide such services, combined with incentives to apply those skills in their local communities are examples of key strategic investments with relatively low cost, and very high return.

Dick Root clearly understood this, and his commitment also is a central theme in my own work - that the responsibility to address the challenges lies with individuals. We can not wait around for governments and international organizations to do the job - people are going to have to take the initiative and engage directly to make a difference. Your father not only was doing that - but in his passing still is, for as horrible as it is, the legacy of his efforts can and should inspire others to make our own contributions - either overseas or here at home, to make a difference for our children's futures.

I would also note that the attention that this horrible and tragic event has gotten, once one strips away the sensationalism of the event, helps tell the world a very important thing about the American spirit. You mention Teddy Roosevelt in your blog. This spirit of adventure and engagement with the world is very important for those outside America to know about. But even more important, it is vital that the world know that there are very courageous, hard working, and deeply committed Americans who are engaged in the world trying every day to make the world a better place.

The stereotype of Americans that has done so much damage to our international reputation is directly challenged by the work that Dick Root was doing in Africa. The world needs to know that Americans are doing these kinds of things - in selfless ways simply with the goal of trying to help make the world a better place. I am proud - very proud - to have known Dick Root, and to have had him both as a relative and a friend. He is a true hero.

My warmest regards,

Sean

Letter from Carole Ann Combs
(to the Dick Root Family)

April 1, 2006


On the occasion of the Memorial Services for Dick to be held this Saturday, April 1, I would like to share with you some memories of Dick, as the Kay and Root families grew up together. My father was extremely proud of Dick, as was his/our grandmother, Bessie Kay (Riford).

The Roots (Dick, Carole, Aunt Carolyne and Uncle Ray) came for several Christmases with us and spent weeks with us during the summers in Cleveland Heights, Shaker Heights, and Moreland Hills, OH. We have family films showing the Roots and Kays (Carole and I in sock-hair curlers and ribbed bathrobes!) decorating Christmas trees. One of my funniest memories of Dick is when, visiting at Christmastime at age 15, he went for a walk on one of the nearby Shaker Lakes in Shaker Heights, OH where we lived at the time. He was unassailably the idol of the entire family, but managed nevertheless to fall through a hole in the ice and return home soaking wet, having to go through the indignity of laughing and changing pants. We were very glad he made it home OK, however! I believe that was also the first time he ever shaved.

Other memories involve summer days in Moreland Hills, OH, when my father (Earle B. Kay) and Dick moved huge rocks, created gardens, planted innumerable flowering bushes, etc., then plunged into an icy cold pool, and came up to the house to down a Miller’s Highlight fast, all in one gulp. (I learned to drink beer that way and to this day do the same thing, if I drink beer at all--such fine role models they were.) That just seemed like the most fun way to do it.

My brother, David, remembers that the first summer after we moved to Moreland Hills, Dick spent quite a few weeks with us and would lead us -- his four younger Kay cousins--on “coon hunts” at night, flashlight in hand, with our Boxer “Cookie” as the “coon dog.”

Then, as we continued to grow up, we heard about Dick’s successes in college, medical school, and in his career. My next big memory is visiting

Dick and Marilyn with my husband, Dick Combs, in Maryland just after the birth of David, I believe. I was pregnant with Valerie at the time, and it seemed that we all had suddenly grown up so much and taken on so much responsibility. While my family was involved in tours in Moscow and stays in Washington, D.C., etc., it was Dick who most of all made the effort to stay in touch. When we were in Monterey in the late ‘90’s, Dick made a special effort to be in touch and made it so clear that the family and his memories of our families were very important to him. We were last together at the wedding of our daughter, Dorothy, in December 2005. He looked wonderful, and he and Rita were so happy together starting out a new life. It was wonderful to have Carole and Walter with us then, too. When I heard that he and Rita were going to Botswana, I worried but trusted that all would be OK. I find the mantra, “Peace comes without effort” most comforting. Thanks to the author of that.

All the Kays and Combses will be with you in spirit on April 1, and I will be with you when Carole is able to travel to Seattle for interment of Dick’s ashes and look forward to seeing you then.

Our greatest love and deepest sympathy,

Carole Ann

Memorial Service Reading:

My Tribute to Dick
by Carole Root Neubauer

I still cannot imagine life without Dick. I was blessed to be his little sister, and I will miss him terribly. Dick and I bonded very early and for life. It’s written in my baby book that “Dickie” was one of my first words and that he could make me laugh “boisterously”. I worshipped him. Our mother died in 1967 and our dad in 1983, so we’ve been alone together for many years.

I once met one of Dick’s Fellows at Yale who told me he couldn’t believe I survived growing up with Dick Root. I’m not exactly sure what he meant by that. I do know that Dick was full of energy and he liked to get the better of me, but he was also my great protector.

Dick’s capacity for living life to its fullest was such a wonderful trait. I was so proud of all his accomplishments and never missed an opportunity to let the world know about “my brother, the doctor”. He had all the right stuff. He was good at everything he did. He had a great sense of humor and was very compassionate. We helped each other with life’s struggles. We gained strength from each other and always emerged with a renewed sense of peace, faith and energy.

Dick’s favorite childhood book was “Hercules”, the story of an old-fashioned fire engine. You see, “Hercules could do things that no fire truck could ever hope to do”. I think Dick was greatly inspired by that book. It was a rite of passage for Dick to present his sons and grandchildren with their very own copy which I’m sure he inscribed. My favorite childhood book was “The Little Engine that Could”. Together Hercules and the Little Engine made a great team. I’ll keep that little engine going while he’s watching out for me from above.

Dick and I always enjoyed playing music together. From our earliest childhood, we stood under the Christmas tree singing Christmas carols with our little candles. And in more recent years, we used to enjoy our jam sessions. I’d play the piano and he’d play the guitar. We’d sing all our favorite songs and learn some new ones.

On his last visit in January, he taught me a favorite of his called “Always Trust Your Cape”. It’s about a man’s journey through life from boyhood to old age. He believed that he could fly with a makeshift flour sack cape and was determined to succeed. As the last verse of the song says:

“All those years the people said he’s acting like a kid.
He didn’t know he couldn’t fly and so he did.”

The Chorus is especially poignant and moved Dick so every time he sang it:

“We’ll he’s one of those who knows
That life is just a leap of faith
So spread your arms and hold your breath
And always trust your cape.”

We all have a terrible void in our lives without Dick and our hearts are very heavy. But Dick taught all of us great things. He gave us the love and tools to carry on our lives, to find our own paths, and to keep his causes alive.

In closing, I’d like to pass on to you a poem that was given to me when our mother died.

“He has taken his bright candle
Into another room I cannot find.
But everyone can see where he has been,
By all the little lights he left behind”.

He lit up the world, he lit up our lives, and he lit the way for each of us. Take comfort, as I have, in knowing how blessed we all are to have loved him and been so loved by him.

Sunday, April 09, 2006

Dr. Richard K. Root Eulogy

My Father's Road Less Traveled:
Crocodile Archetypal Myth Mesmerizes
“Civilization's” Imagination


by Richard Allen Root

Mistah Kurtz – he dead.
A penny for the old guy.
(from The Heart of Darkness, by Joseph Conrad)

Joseph Conrad’s words, borrowed by T.S. Eliot to begin his seminal Modern poem “The Hollow Men,” hurtle through my mind as I conjure my father’s death. I must conjure this image, because it is too savage and too alien to imagine.

When my brother told me at 7:36 on Saturday morning, I had hope. It was so outrageous. I repeated it twice: “Come on, Dave. That’s a sick joke.” My brother's voice was somewhere between a gurgle and a guttural thing that encompassed both ends of the spectrum. The existential guffaw at the abyss. Still, I laughed. It was almost believable. Dad would have liked it, something so dark it was only laughable, some Theater of the Absurd.

The date was April 19th. It would have been my mother and father’s 46th wedding anniversary, no less. My dad was enamored with meaningful dates. Some even whispered, "Mom took him back." Yes, it's true, the Roots have always have had a flair for the dramatic...Boy, we’ve got stories.

And in my head echoes "The Hollow Men," T.S. Eliot's tribal chant:

This is the way the world ends
This is the way the world ends
This is the way the world ends
Not with a bang, but a whimper.

But not for my dad.

Still, it could have been a whimper. I think this as I teach David Auburn’s Pulitzer–prize winning play Proof to my Chaffey College class, the story of a professorial genius who decayed alone in the dementia of schizophrenia for the final five years of his life.My dad receded to some twilight state as my mother died, withering away in her Lou Gehrig’s disease. "Tuesdays with Mommy." He did it all himself for months, sucking the saliva out of her mouth with a plastic dentist suction tube - minute by minute - as she choked, because her nerves would no longer let her swallow.

My father swallowed alcohol to numb his pain, the pain of losing his high school sweetheart of 41 years. He loved her dearly. Idealistically. A utopian love, fraught with the same pettiness that we witness in our own marriages, which he refused to see. Not his life. Not his wife. Always the idealist. Always the optimist. Even beyond the end. Or perhaps this was when he cracked, and the light seeped in. And the fall that would be his final rise began. He was like a star that shines the brightest just before it explodes. He was there. Human alchemy. He had turned to gold and marveled at the sunlight gleaming across a tranquil Limpopo River. He had been given "a new lease on life," and was returning to his “roots.” Ironically, or not.

He went to the jungle to teach doctors to save people. There are just not enough doctors there to handle the massive patient overload. This is one of the gravest problems of the AIDS epidemic in Africa.

I imagine him sometimes to be Teddy Roosevelt, the last of the roughriders. Or like our great ancestor on his mother’s side, Ethan Allen, a Green Mountain Boy, a revolutionary who took down the "civilized" British kingdom by wit, force, dreams, and mere audacity of action. Or like the songs he sang on that great expanse of a rumbling Kitty Hawk beach at night beside a crackling bonfire. The sand crabs scuttled about just outside the fringe of light, while he looked up into the stars, singing, “Yah! Ghost riders in the sky…,” strumming his 12 string guitar like thundering hooves. Making us look up.

Dad, I am still looking up.

We all looked up wondrously, while he gaped like a child, playing us. We loved my dad. He was a child who would never grow up. And during the day he dawned his Superman outfit and strode the hospital floors doing battle against the world’s deadliest diseases. "Superdad." That’s what we called him. Later, a bit "tongue-in-cheek," but still admiringly.

And now he seizes the world’s imagination with a ghastly story of his mauling by a hidden marauding crocodile. Some said there hadn’t been a crocodile attack on the Limpopo River - Rudyard Kipling's river - for decades. Always the myth. But this year the rains had been exceptionally abundant. The rivers were swollen and oozed with run off and reptiles. Of course, my dad had to break precedence and be the first in decades.

But why are we so intrigued? Why must the stranger stop me in the hall and engage me in a half hour conversation? An outpouring of his soul. I cannot stop them. We cannot stop them. So we listen. Now, we listen not as much for us or for my father, although we do chronicle all we are told as a way to combat our awe and grief. But for them. They must speak. For his story is their story. His story is our story.

It is the story of civilized man, of idealized man, returning to the jungle, braving the heart of darkness to do good for those who live what Conrad's dying demigod Kurtz called, “the horror, the horror.”

Forty percent of Botswanans have HIV. Africa is burning with poverty, genocide, drought, famine, and disease. Even years ago, Time magazine ran an issue with the continent of Africa burning on its cover. They explained why we couldn’t just let Africa fall into the sea, why we could no longer let it descend to the wild beasts that once dominated its terrain. Civilization, long ago, has captured King Kong. There is no more “king of the jungle.” Only man. There is no going backward. Only forward. And so we “slouch toward Bethlehem,” waiting for "The Second Coming."

We understand it most immediately now as we watch the Avian Flu migrate into that continent, and hear in the news that it is in the compromised immune systems of Africans that the virus could most easily mutate into a human strain.

Gates and Bono are right. At all costs, we must save Africa.

Richard Root is everyman who went to Africa to slay the beast, an aging knight in shining armor, the Old Gringo, an Ambrose Bierce of our Post-Modern Age, who died in a blaze of glory in a foreign land. Like that star shining the brightest before it explodes, my father had been living in a type of realized enlightenment for the past few years. He had read every book he could devour. He had plundered the valley of the shadow of death, survived a septuple bypass surgery, my mother’s grueling death, and a personal plague of demons that followed. He had reached the apex of honor in his career and had willingly stepped down to do what he loved to do, much like Hermann Hesse's Magister Ludi, the leader of a futuristic utopian academia who relinquished his crown to work simply - man by man. To focus on the small steps.

With his new wife Rita O’Boyle, my father lived in both an enchanted world and a personally “realized” world...or perhaps it was just the glow of remission. Still, he knew. Each day mattered to him. Carpe Diem. “Seize the day, boys. Seize the day.” He would slap his hands together then rub them like sand paper: "Great!" Life was great. He was a man who burst open with his lust for life. Especially at the end. And he had his serenity prayer when needed. And - sometimes, unwillingly - we listened.

But why does this personal story mean so much even to the stranger – the browser on the internet, the man with the TV remote? Why? Because Dr. Richard Kay Root was one of our unsung "great white hopes" to quell the beast, and he is our forewarned failure. He is our denouement. He is the end of a generation - not only literally for me, but perhaps figuratively for all of us.

Still, we, this "next generation," can perhaps - yes, only "perhaps" – be his epilogue. Because it is so close to being too late. It is up to our generation. We have been handed the baton. Infectious disease, my father’s discipline, is Earth’s white cells. How else can Earth combat this infestation of human life that threatens to warm our globe beyond recognition? We must tread boldly - and softly - now. Because it might be too late.

Then we, too, will wake in a twilight hour with our necks caught in the jaws of monstrous teeth even Odysseus could not slay. And it will all seem like a dream.

T.S. Eliot's "The Hollow Men" rise to me in my delirium I refuse to meet:

Eyes I dare not meet in dreams
In death's dream kingdom
These do not appear:
There, the eyes are
Sunlight on a broken column
There, is a tree swinging
And voices are
In the wind's singing
More distant and more solemn
Than a fading star.

Let me be no nearer
In death's dream kingdom
Let me also wear
Such deliberate disguises
Rat's coat, crowskin, crossed staves
In a field
Behaving as the wind behaves
No nearer --

Not that final meeting
In the twilight kingdom.

Richard Root was our American pioneer spirit. Like our family's earlier ancestor, former Secretary of State Elihu Root, he went down to the savage kingdom to assuage a war. But he performed no miracle; he won no Nobel Prize. He died the horrific death of a common happy man attempting to make a small difference, tormented by our same ghosts, seizing the greatest of his final days, bold and joyful. My father gave the last of himself fully and willingly – and that has made all the difference.

Richard Root: founded division of Penn med school
The Philadelphia Inquirer

http://www.philly.com/mld/inquirer/news/local/states/new_jersey/14163510.htm

Saturday, April 08, 2006

UCSF School of Medicine
In Memorium : Dr. Richard Kay Root

..."Dick Root was one of my mentors in Infectious Diseases, and the person who brought me into the faculty at UCSF", stated Ruth Greenblatt, professor of clinical medicine and epidemiology. "He was one of the most personable, caring and bright people I have worked with. Dick had an open mind and was always one of the first to recognize innovative ideas. That he chose to teach in Botswana, a country with a particularly intense AIDS epidemic, is no surprise to me...

http://medschool.ucsf.edu/news/news/20060327_RichardRoot.aspx

Marilyn and Richard Root Remembered
Includes original Mercer Island Reporter story about Marilyn and Richard Root's struggle with ALS.

http://www.mi-reporter.com/sited/story/html/234117

Sunday, March 26, 2006

UPenn/Botswana
Richard K. Root Memorial Fund

This fund will assist in continuing Dr. Root's research and humanitarian efforts in combating AIDS and other infectious diseases, and the doctors who dedicate their lives to this effort.

Send checks payable to:

UPenn/Botswana Richard K. Root Memorial Fund
c/o Dr. H. Friedman
Chief, Infectious Diseases
Director, Penn Botswana Program
University of Pennsylvania
502 Johnson Pavillion
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6073

News Article: U.S. Doctor's Body Found

http://www.int.iol.co.za/index.php?art_id=vn20060323055243733C848953&set_id=1&click_id=84&sf=

Post Personal Reflections Here: (click "comments" below)

Family, friends, and colleagues, post your personal reflections here. We have heard beautiful, touching, and humorous stories from many of you. Please share them here.

Spontaneous memorials:

Findlay Wallace at University of Washington reported that their recent morning meeting turned into spontaneous outpouring of stories, memories, and thank-you's from UW medical staff.

Harvey Friedman, chief of infectious disease and director of the visiting program at the University of Pennsylvania related that the weekly Friday Case Management Conference where doctors discuss their most difficult cases, founded by Dr. Root during his tenure at UPenn, still continues to be one of the most popular conference's at the University. Friday morning became a similar spontaneous outpouring in memory of Dr. Root.

News Article: Seattle PI

Top Doctor Killed in Africa by Crocodile

http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/263742_drroot21.html

Saturday, March 25, 2006

News Article: New York Times

Dr. Richard K. Root Dies Serving Humanity

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/21/national/21ROOT.html

News Article: THe Philadelphia Inquirer

Founding UPenn doctor dies in Africa

http://www.philly.com/mld/inquirer/news/local/states/new_jersey/14163510.htm

Obituary: The Seattle Times

Seattle Times Obituary, March 22, 2006 -

Botswana trip turns fatal for disease expert from Seattle

Memorial Service

Saturday, April 1st, 2 P.M.

St. Dunstan's Episcopal Church
722 N. 145th St.
Shoreline, WA 91833

Map and Directions (click the link below):

http://www.google.com/local?hl=en&lr=&q=st+dunstan%27s+episcopal+church&near=Shoreline,+WA&radius=0.0&latlng=47755833,-122340278,7800102233200755217&sa=X&oi=local&ct=result&cd=0

In lieu of flowers, please donate to the UPenn/Richard K. Root Memorial Fund.

Professional Memorial Service

Hosted by the University of Washington and Harborview Medical Center.

To Be Announced. (Late June to early August)

Invite List Registration:

Click "comments" directly below and give your name, address, email, phone number and any other pertinent contact information .

We would like to invite as many people as possible who Dr. Root impacted through his teaching and life.

UPenn/Richard K. Root Memorial Fund

This fund will assist in continuing Dr. Root's research and humanitarian efforts in combating AIDS and other infectious diseases, and the doctors who dedicate their lives to this effort. The first funds will be dedicated directly to Dr. Root's work in Botswana.

"Matching Donors" to be announced.

Send checks payable to: UPenn/Richard K. Root Memorial Fund

Address to be announced.

Richard Kay Root CV

sRICHARD K. ROOT, M.D.

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal

Office Address: Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Box 359931

Harborview Medical Center

325 Ninth Avenue

Seattle, Washington 98104

Born: December 1, 1937, New York, New York

Deceased: March 19, 2006, Limpopo River, Botswana

Marital Status: Married 1960 – Marilyn Parletta (Deceased 2001)

Remarried 2004 – Rita O’Boyle

Children: Richard Allen, 1960

David Lawrence, 1963

Daniel Christopher, 1968

Education:

1959 Wesleyan University, B.A. Cum Laude (Biology)

1963 Johns Hopkins University, M.D. (Medicine)

Postgraduate Training and Fellowship Appointments

1963-64 Intern in Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

1964-65 Assistant Resident in Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

1965-67 Clinical Associate, United States Public Health Service, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (Military Service)

1967-68 Clinical Investigator, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD

1968-69 Chief Resident and Instructor, Department of Medicine, University Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Faculty Appointments

1969-71 Senior Investigator, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

1971-73 Assistant Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

1973-75 Associate Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA

1974 Visiting Associate Professor of Medicine, Pahlavi University School of Medicine., Shiraz, Iran (August-October)

1975-82 Professor of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

1982-85 Professor of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

1985-91 Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

1990 Visiting Professor of Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, UK (April-July)

1991-2002 Professor of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

1998 Visiting Professor of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland (Feb-June)

2002 Emeritus Professor of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle WA

Hospital Positions Held

1971-75 Chief, Infectious Disease Section, Department of Medicine, University of Pennyslvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

1975-82 Chief, Infectious Disease Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

1980-82 Vice Chairman, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

1982-85 Chief, Medical Service, Seattle Veterans Administration Medical Center, Seattle, Washington

1982-85 Vice Chairman, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

1985-89 Physician-in-Chief, University of California, San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, CA

1985-89 Chairman, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1989-91 Associate Dean for Clinical Education, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California

1991-2001 Chief, Medical Service, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington

Vice Chairman, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington

2001- Attending Physician, Division of Allergy and Infectious Disease Medical Science, Harborview

Medical Center, Seattle, Washington


Honors

1959 Sigma Xi

1962-63 Dennison Scholar, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

1963 Phi Beta Kappa

1963- Alpha Omega Alpha

1972-75 NIH Research Career Development Award (A1 70052)

1973 Master of Arts (Hon.) University of Pennsylvania

1975-2001 American Society for Clinical Investigation

1975 Master of Arts (Hon.) Yale University

1977 Fellow, American College of Physicians (046011)

1979-2001 Emeritus, Association of American Physicians

1980-82 Paul B. Beeson Professor of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine

1982 Medical Housestaff Teacher of the Year Award, Yale University School of Medicine

Board Certification:

1969- Diplomate, American Board of Internal Medicine (No. 31852)

Liscenses to Practice:

Current: Washington and California

Previously held: Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Maryland

Professional Organizations:

1966-2002 American Federation for Clinical Research

Councilor, Eastern Section, 1976-78

President, Eastern Section, 1978-79

1969 Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of America

2002 American Society for Hematology

1979- Fellow American College of Physicians

1980-2002 Association of American Immunologists

1980 American Society of Microbilogy

1980-85 ICAAC Program Committee

1981-82 Board of Trustees, Hospice of Connecticut, Branford, CT.

1981-82 Board of Trustees, Yale-China Association, Yale University School of Medicine

1983 Western Association of Physicians

Councilor, 1987-89

President-elect, 1996-97

President, 1997-98

Past President, 1998-99

1984-89 American Board of Internal Medicine, Infectious Disease Subcommittee

1985-97 Association of Professors of Medicine

1988-93 American Clinical and Climatological Association

1993-2002 Society for General Internal Medicine

1996 - The Infectious Diseases Society of Washington

Seattle Academy of Internal Medicine, Seattle, WA

2000- Physicians for Social Responsibility

Editorial Responsibilities

1974-84 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1978-79 Infectious Disease Board, Medical Knowledge Self-Assessment Program V (MKSAP V), American College of Physicians

1990-93 Annals of Internal Medicine

1991-92 Advisor The Internal Medicine Resident (Bi-monthly journal)

1992-95 The American Journal of Medicine

1992-94 Section Editor, Infectious Diseases Subcommittee, Medical Knowledge Self-Assessment Program X (MKSAP X), American College of Physicians

1993- Scientific Therapeutics Information, Inc.: The Neutrophil: Importance in Host Defense (Monograph series).

Contemporary Issues in Infectious Diseases Churchill-Livingstone, New York

1984 Vol. 1. New Dimensions in Antimicrobial Therapy

RK Root, MA Sande, Eds.

1984 Vol. 2. Endocarditis

MA Sande, D Kaye, RK Root, Eds.

1985 Vol. 3. Bacterial Meningitis

MA Sande, AL Smith, RK Root, Eds.

1985 Vol. 4. Septic Shock

RK Root, MA Sande, Eds.

1985 Vol. 5. Respiratory Infections

MA Sande, L. Hudson, RK Root, Eds.

1987 Vol. 6. New Surgical and Medical Approaches

RK Root, D. Trunkey, MA Sande, Eds.

1987 Vol. 7. Parasitic Infections

MA Sande, J. Leech, RK Root, Eds.

1987 Vol. 8. Immunization

RK Root, K. Warren, JM Griffiss, MA Sande, Eds.

1992 Vol. 9. Treatment of Serious Infections in the 1990s

MA Sande, RK Root, Eds.

1993 Vol 10. Viral Infections

MA Sande, RK Root, Eds.

1987 Epitome Series, (Ed.) RK Root

Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990, 12th Edition. (Eds.) Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Petersdorf, RG., Wilson JD, Martin JB, Fauci AS, and Root RK.

Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. Companion Handbook. Mc-Graw-hill, New York, 1991, 12th Edition. (Eds.) Braunwald E., Isselbacher KJ, Petersdorf RG, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Fauci AS, and Root RK.

Clinical Infectious Diseases: A Practical Approach. Oxford University Press, New York, 1999. 1st Edition, Root RK, (Editor-in-Chief), (Eds) Waldvogel F, Corey L, and Stamm WE

Special National Responsibilities

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Study Section, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Bacteriology and Mycology Study Section (AHR), National Institute of Health

1979-81 Microbiology Study Section, National Institutes of Health

1985-87 Scientific Subcommittee on Leukocyte Physiology, American Society Hematology

1986-88 NIAID Director AIDS Advisory Committee

1986-91 Member, University wide Task Force on AIDS, University of California, chair, 1990-91

1987-89 NIAID/NIH Advisory Committee on AIDS

1991 Ad Hoc Committee on Housestaff Participation, Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, D.C.

1994 -96 In-Trainings Examination Committee, American College of Physicians

Special Local Responsibilities:

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 1971-75

1971-75 Attending Physician, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, PA

1971-75 Consulting Physician, VAMC, Philadelphia, PA

1971-75 Consulting Physician, Philadelphia General Hospital, Philadelphia, PA

1971-75 Chairman, Infections Committee, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

1971-75 Member, Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

1972-75 Member, Executive Committee, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

1972-75 Member, Internship Selection Committee, Department of Medicine, University of

Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA

1973-75 Member, Medical Board, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, PA

1973-75 Member, Professional Staff Committee, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadlephia, PA

Yale University School of Medicine, 1975-82

1975-82 Attending Physician, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT

1975-82 Consulting Physician, VAMC, West Haven, CT

1975-82 Member, Executive Committee, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

1975-81 Member, Appointments and Promotions Committee, Department of Internal

Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

1976-77 Chairman, In-Patient Planning Committee, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

1977-80 Member, Infections Committee, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT

1977-80 Member, Committee on the Status of Women, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

1977-82 Member, Clinical Education Committee, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale

University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

1978-81 Member, Planning and Priorities Committee, Yale University School of Medicine,

New Haven, CT

1979-82 Member, Medical Committee, Yale-China Association, Yale University School of

Medicine, New Haven, CT

1980-82 Chairman, In-Patient Planning Committee, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale

University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

1980-82 Chairman, Space Committee, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University

School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

1980-82 Member, Internship Selection Committee, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale

University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

1980-81 Member, Task Force on Governance, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT

1980-82 Vice-Chairman, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of

Medicine, New Haven, CT

1980-82 Assistant Chief of Medicine, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT

1981-82 Acting Chairman, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of

Medicine, New Haven, CT

1981-82 Acting Chief of Medicine, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT

1981-82 Member, Medical Board, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT

1981-82 Member, Executive Committee, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT

1981-82 Member, Executive Committee, Faculty Practice Plan, Yale University School of

Medicine, New Haven, CT

University of Washington, 1982-85

1982-85 Member, Steering Committee, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

1982-85 Member, Internal Medicine Residency Selection Committee, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

1983-85 Member, Appointments and Promotions Committee (Associate Professors), Department of Medicine, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle,WA

1983-85 Chairman (1984), Appointments and Promotions Committee (Professors) Department of Medicine,University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA

1984-85 Member, University of Washington Affiliated Hospital Network Medical Directors, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA

1984-85 Member, Department of Psychiatry Chairman Search Cm., University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA

VA Medical Center, Seattle, 1982-85

1982-85 Member, Clinical Executive Board, Veterans Administration Medical Ctr, Seattle, WA

1982-85 Member, Research and Development Cm., Veterans Administration Medical Ctrr, Seattle, WA

1982-85 Member, Position Management Committee, Veterans Administration Medical Ctr, Seattle, WA

1982-85 Member, Professional Standards Board, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Seattle, WA

1982-85 Chairman, Female Veterans Health Care Cm., Veterans Administration Medical Ctr, Seattle, WA

1982-83 Member, Chief of Hematology Search Committee, Veterans Administration Medical Ctr, Seattle, WA

1982-83 Member, Chief of Dermatology Search Cm., Veterans Administration Medical Center, Seattle, WA

1983-84 Chairman, Chief of Staff Search Cm., Veterans Administration Medical Center, Seattle, WA

1983-84 Chairman, Chief of Gerontology Search Cm., Veterans Administration Medical Ctr, Seattle, WA

1983-84 Member, Chief of Neurology Search Cm., Veterans Administration Medical Ctr, Seattle, WA

University of California, San Francisco, 1985-91

1985-86 Member, Committee on Patient Care, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1985-86 Member, Dean's AIDS Advisory Committee, University of California, San Francisco,

San Francisco, CA

1985-87 Member, Surgery Chairman Search Cm, University of California, San Francisco, S. Fran., CA

1985-89 Chief, Medical Service, Moffitt/Long Hospitals, University of California, San Francisco,

San Francisco, CA

1985-89 Member, Joint Planning Committee, UCSF/Mt. Zion Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1985-89 Member, Committee on Research of the Academic Senate, University of California,

San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1985-89 Member, Dean's Advisory Cm, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1985-89 Member, Dean's Executive Cm, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1985-89 Member, Professional Services Steering Committee, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1985-89 Member, Society of Professional Association Nomination Committee, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1985-90 Member, Residency Selection Committee, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1985- Member, Governing Board of Continuing Medical Education, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1985-91 Member, Cm. on Educational Policy, University of California, San Francisco, S. Fran., CA

1986-87 Member, Pediatric Chairman Search Cm, University of California, San Francisco,

San Francisco, CA

1986-87 Member, Ad Hoc Peer Review, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1987-89 Dean's Committee to Review New and Existing Programs, University of California,

San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1987-89 Member, Executive Cm, Clinical Practice Organization, University of California, S. Fran., CA

1987-89 Chairman, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory Utilization Review Committee, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1987-89 Member, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Committee, University of California,

San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1988-89 Chairman, Universitywide Task Force on AIDS, University of California Systemwide

1988-89 Member, Dean's Search Committee, University of California San Francisco, San Fran., CA

1988-91 Member, Chancellor's AIDS Coordinating Council, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1988-91 Member, William K. Hamilton Visiting Lectureship Committee, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1989-91 Member, Chancellor's Distinguished Lectureship Committee, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1989-90 Member, UCSF/Mt. Zion Clinical Planning Committee, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1989-90 Chairman, Ad HocGrading Policies Cm., University of California San Francisco, S. Fran., CA

1989-90 Member, Curriculum Committee, University of California San Francisco, S. Fran., CA

1989-90 Chairman, Subcommittee for Ambulatory Care Longitudinal Clinic, University of

California San Francisco, San Francisco, C

1989-90 Chairman, Search Committee for Associate Director of Pulmonary/Vice Chairman, Department of

Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco,

San Francicso, CA

1989-90 Member, 1990 International AIDS Conference Program and Planning Committee,

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1989-91 Chairman, Post Doctoral Advisory Committee, University of California, San Francisco,

San Francisco, CA

1989-91 Member, Ad Hoc Faculty Review Committee, University of California San Francisco,

San Francisco., CA

1989-91 Member, Undergraduate Medical Education Cm., University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1990-91 Member, Biosafety Committee, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA,

1990-91 Member, Physicians' Well Being Committee, University of California, San Francisco,

San Francisco, CA

1990-91 Promotions Committee, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1990-91 Member, University of California, Berkeley/University of California, San Francisco Joint Medical Program Committee, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

1990-91 Chief, Department of Medicine Firm System for In-Patient Care, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 1991-

1991 - Attending Physician, University of Washington Medical Center

Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA

1991 - Member, Distinguished Society Committee, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA

1991- Member, Clinical Competence Committee, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA

1991 - Member, Intern Selection Committee (Traditional Program), Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA

1992-97 Member, Committee to Review Disability Insurance Options for Housestaff, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA

1992 Chairman, Residency Advisory Committee, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA

1992-93 Member, Appointments and Promotions Committee, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

1992-93 Chairman, Medicine/Psychiatry Residency Training Program Committee, Dearptment of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

1992-95 Chairman, Head of General Internal Medicine Division Search Committee, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

1992-95 Member, Dean’s Council on Scientific Affairs, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

1993 Member, Professors’ Review Committee, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

1994 Member, Cardiothoracic/Cardiology Long Range Planning Committee, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

1995 Member, Ad Hoc Committee for Recommendations Regarding Size and Primary Location for Residency Training Program, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Member, Dean's Council on Academic Affairs, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Member, Steering Committee, Health Science Partnerships in Clinical Education (HSPICE)

Harborview Medical Center 1991 –

1991 Member, Joint Harborview Medical Center/University of Washington Medical Center AIDS Clinical Task Force, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA

1991 Member, Ad Hoc Cm. for Harborview Medical Center Goverance, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA

1991 Member, Ambulatory Care Center Coordinating Cm., Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA

1991 Member, Search Committee, Chief, Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA

1991 Member, Finance Committee, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA

1991 Member, Long Range Capital Improvement Project, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA

1991 Member, Medical Executive Board, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA

1991-95 Member, Quality Assurance Committee, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA

Member, Review Committee for STD-HIV Strategic Planning At Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA

Member, Joint University of Washington School of Medicine/Harborview Medical Center

1992 Chairman, Search Committee, Chief, Radiology Service, Harborview Medical Center, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Chairman, Search Committee, Associate Administrator for Patient Care Services Search Committee, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA

1995 Member, Search Committee, Chief Family Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA

Acting Chief, Section of General Internal Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA

2001 Chair, Safety Net Task Force, Harborview Medical Center

Research Interests

Host defense mechanisms in infection

Human phagocytic cell function

Pathogensis and management of sepsis and septic shock

Epidemiology, management and outcomes of community acquired pneumonia

Use of colony-Stimulating factors in the treatment of infectious diseases

Visiting Professorships

April 1983 Brainerd Visiting Professorship, University of California, San Francisco, S. Fran., CA

October 1985- George W. Thorn Visiting Professorship, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA

May 1986 Paul B. Beeson Visiting Professorship, Yale University, New Haven, CT

October 1986 Bowman Visiting Professorship, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA

April 1987 William J. Harrington Visiting Professorship, University of Miami, Miami, FL

October 1987 Cyris Sturgis Visiting Professorship, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

January 1988 John S. Lawrence Visiting Professorship, UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA

December 1988 Howard Hiatt Visiting Professor, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

March 1989 University of New South Wales Visiting Professorship, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

May 1996 Philip Bondy Visiting Professorship, Yale University Sch. Med., New Haven, CT

March 2000 John A. Burns School of Medicine/Queens Hospital Visiting Professor

Bibliography

a. Peer-Reviewed Publications

1. Drachman RH, Root RK, and Wood WB, Jr.: Studies on the effect of experimental nonketotic diabetes mellitus on antibacterial defense. 1. Demonstration of a defect in phagocytosis. Journal of Experimental Medicine 124:227-240, 1966.

2. Wolff, SM, Kimball HR, Perry S, Root RK, and Kappas A: The biologic properties of etiocholanolone. Annals of Internal Medicine 67:1268-1295, 1967.

3. Root RK, and Wolff SM: Pathogenetic mechanisms in experimental immune fever. Journal of Experimental Medicine 128:309-323, 1968.

4. Kammermeyer JK, Root RK, Stites DP, Glade PR, and Chessin LN: The detection and characterization of phagocytic cells in established human cell lines synthesizing immunoglobulins. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 129:522-527, 1968.

5. Root RK, Nordlund JJ, and Wolff SM: Factors affecting the quantitative production and assay of human leukocytic pyrogen. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 75:670-693, 1970.

6. Nordlund JJ, Root RK, and Wolff SM: Studies on the origin of human leukocytic pyrogen. Journal of Experimental Medicine 131:727-743, 1970.

7. Mickenberg ID, Root RK, and Wolff SM: Leukocytic function in hypogammaglobulinemia. Journal of Clinical Investigation 49:1528-1538, 1970.

8. Root RK, Wolff SM, and Baer H: Skin reactivity of human subjects to a polysaccharide component of BCG culture filtrates. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 136:403-406, 1971.

9. Mickenberg ID, Synderman R, Root RK, Merganhagen SE, and Wolff SM: Immune fever in the rabbit: responses of the hematologic and complement systems. Journal of Immunology 107:1457-1465, 1971.

10. Mickenberg ID, Synderman R, Root RK, Merganhagen SE, and Wolff SM: The relationship of complement consumption to immune fever. Journal of Immunology 107:1466-1476, 1971.

Mickenberg ID, Root RK, and Wolff SM: Bactericidal and metabolic properties of human eosinophils. Blood 39:67-80, 1972

12. Wolff SM, Dale DC, Clark RA, Root RK, and Kimball HR: The Chediak-Higashi syndrome: studies of host defenses. Annals of Internal Medicine 76:293-306, 1972

Stossel TP, Root RK, and Vaughn M: Phagocytosis in chronic granulomatous disease and the Chediak-Higashi syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine 286:120-123, 1972

Root RK, Rosenthal AS, and Balestra DJ: Abnormal bactericidal, metabolic, and lysosomal functions of Chediak-Higashi syndrome leukocytes. Journal of Clinical Investigation 51:649-665, 1972.

Diamond RD, Root RK, and Bennett JE: Factors influencing killing of Cryptococcus neoformans by human leukocytes in vitro. Journal of Infectious Diseases 125:367-376, 1972.

Herzig GP, Root RK, and Graw RG, Jr.: Granulocyte collection by continuous-flow filtration leukopheresis. Blood 39:554-567, 1972.

Root RK, Ellman L, and Frank MD: Bactericidal and opsonic properties of C4-deficient guinea pig serum. Journal of Immunology 109:477-486, 1972.

Rudd FV, Root RK, Skoglund RW, Jr., and Ansel JS: Tumor-induced hypercalcemia. Journal of Urology 107:986-989, 1972.]-->

Rhame FS, Root RK, MacLowry JD, Dadisman TA, and Bennett JV: Salmonella cholera-suis septicemia outbreak caused by platelet transfusions from a hematogenous carrier. Annals of Internal Medicine 77:633-641, 1973.

Clark RA, Root RK, Kimball HR, and Kirkpatrick CH: Defective neutrophil chemotaxis and cellular immunity in a child with recurrent infections. Annals of Internal Medicine 78:515-519, 1973.

Bujak JS and Root RK: The role of peroxidase in the bactericidal activity of human blood eosinophils. Blood 43:727, 1974.

Root RK and Stossel TP: Myeloperoxidase-mediated iodination by granulocytes: intracellular site of operation and some regulating factors. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 53:1207-1215, 1974.

Bagdade JD, Root RK, Bulger RJ: Impaired leukocyte function in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Diabetes 23:9-15, 1974.

Root RK, Harris MB, MacGregor RR, and Djerassi I: In vitro function of granulocytes collected by continuous-flow filtration leukopheresis. Proceedings of Leukocyte Transfusion Symposium, London, England, 1975.

Harris MB, Djerassi I, Schwartz E, and Root RK: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes prepared by continuous-flow filtration leukopheresis: viability and function. Blood 44:707, 1974.

Root RK, Metcalf J, Oshino N, and Chance B: H2O2release from human granulocytes during phagocytosis I. Documentation, quantitation, and some regulating factors. Journal of Clinical Investigation 55:945-955, 1975.


Murphy SA, Hyams JS, Fisher AB, and Root RK: Effects of oxygen exposure on in vitro function of pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Journal of Clinical Investigation 52:505-512, 1975.

Goodhart GL, Abrutyn E, Watson R, Root RK, and Egert J: Community-acquired Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var anitratus pneumonia. JAMA 238:1516, 1977.

Harley JB, Grinspan S, and Root RK: Paraquat suicide in a young woman: results of therapy directed against the superoxide radical. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 50:481-488, 1977.

Abrutyn E, Solomons NW, St. Clair L, MacGregor RR, and Root RK: Granulocyte function in patients with chronic renal failure: surface adherence, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity in vitro. Journal of Infectious Disease 135:18, 1977.

Alavi JB, Root RK, Djerassi I., et al: A randomized clinical trial of granulocyte transfusions for infection in acute leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine 296:706-711, 1977.

Dvorak VD, Root RK, and MacGregor RR: Host-defense mechanisms in hidradenitis suppurative. Archives of Dermatology 113:450-453, 1977.

Root RK and Metcalf JA: H2O2 release from human granulocytes during phagocytosis: Relationship to superoxide anion formation and cellular catabolism of H2O2. Journal of Clinical Investigation 60:1266-1279,

Malech HL, Root RK, and Gallin JI: Structural analysis of human neutrophil migration: centriole, microtubule and microfilament orientation and function during chemotaxis. Journal of Cell Biology 75:666, 1977.

Nathan CF and Root RK: Hydrogen peroxide release from mouse peritoneal macrophages: dependence on sequential activation and triggering. Journal of Experimental Medicine 146:1648-1662, 1977.

Hyams JS, Donaldson MH, Metcalf JA, and Root RK: Inhibition of human granuloctye function by methotrexate. Cancer Research 38:650-655, 1978.

Zakhireh B and Root RK: Unusually high occurrence of drug reactions with nafcillin. Yale Journal of Biological Medicine 51:449-455, 1978.

Cadman E, Cohen MS, Root RK, Ryan JL, and Minor DR: Impaired response to pneumococcal vaccine in Hodgkin's disease. New England Journal of Medicine 299:1317-1318, 1978.

Cohen MS, Steere AC, Baltimore R, Von Gravenitz A, Pantelick E, Camp B, and Root RK: Nosocomial transmission of group Y Neisseria meningitis among cancer patients. Annals of Internal Medicine 90:7, 1979.

Goodhart GL and Root RK: Preparation and function of 1125-labelled mononuclear phagocytes. Journal of Reticuloendothelial Society 26:115-120, 1979.


Clark M and Root: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and infection: A study of hospitalized patients in Iran. Yale Journal of Biological Medicine 52:169-179, 1979.

Cohen MS, Zakhireh B, Metcalf JA, and Root RK: Granulocyte function during lithium therapy. Blood 53:913-915, 1979.

Zakhireh B, Thakur ML, Malech HL, Cohen MS, Gottshalk A, and Root RK: Viability, random migration, chemotaxis, bactericidal capacity and ultrastructure of indium-III labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 20:741-747, 1979.

Zakhireh B and Root RK: Development of oxidase activity by human bone marrow granulocytes. Blood 54:429-439, 1979.

Murphey SA, Root RK, and Schreiber AD: The role of antibody and complement in phagocytosis by rabbitt alveolar macrophages. Journal of Infectious Disease 140:986-993, 1979.

Cohen MS, Zakhireh B, Metcalf JA, and Root RK: Granulocyte function in patients receiving lithium carbonate: lithium effects on granulopoiesis and immune function. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 27:335-346, 1980.

Ryan JL, Pachner A, Andriole VT, Root RK. Annals of Internal Medicine 95:293-301, 1981.

Yourtee EL, Bia FJ, Griffith BT, and Root RK: Neutrophil response and function during acute cytomegalovirus infection in guinea pigs. Infection and Immunity 36:11-16, 1982

Nauseef WM, Metcalf JA, and Root RK: Role of myeloperoxidase in the respiratory burst of human neutrophils. Blood 61:483-492, 1983.

Coleman DL, Root RK, and Ryan JL: Enhancement of macrophage Fc dependent phagocytosis by nonactivated thymocytes. J Immunol 130:2195-2199, 1983.

Nauseef RK, Root RK, and Malech HL: Biochemical and immunologic analysis of hereditary myeloperoxidase deficiency. J Clin Invest 71:1297-1307, 1983.

Nauseef WM, Root RK, Newmann SL, and Malech HL: Inhibition of zymosan activation of human neutrophil oxidative metabolism by a mouse monoclonal antibody. Blood 62:635-644, 1983.

Snyder EL, Root RK, McLeod B, and Dalmasso AP: Activation of complement by blood transfusion filters. Vox Sang. 45:288-293, 1983.

Starkebaum G and Root RK: D-Penicillamine: analysis of the mechanisms of copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide generation. J Immunol 134:3371-3378, 1985.

Miller SA, Bia FJ, Coleman DL, Lucia HL, Young KR, and Root RK: Pulmonary macrophage function during experimental cytomegalovirus interstitial pneumonia. Infection and Immunity 47:211-216, 1985.

Isturiz R, Metcalf JA, Root RK: Enhanced killing of penicillin-treated gram positive cocci by human granulocytes: Role of bacterial autolysins, catalase, and granulocyte oxidative pathways. Yale J Biol Med 58:133-143, 1985.

Hickstein DD, Locksley RM, Beatty PG, Smith A, Stone DM, Root RK: Monoclonal antibodies affecting the human neutrophil C3bi receptor. Blood 67:1054-1062, 1986.

Hickstein D, Smith A, Fisher W, Beatty P, Schwartz B, Harlan J, Root R, Locksley, R: Expression of leukocyte adherence-related glycoproteins during differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. J. Immunol. 138:513-519, 1987.

Takimoto CH, Cram DL, and Root RK: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infectious on an Adult Medical Ward. Arch. Int. Med. 151:706-708, 1991.

Spach DH, Kanter, AS, Dougherty, MJ, Larson AM. Coyle MB, Brenner DJ, Swaminathan B, Matar GM, Welch DF, Root RK. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) Quintana Bactermeia in Inner-City Patients with Chronic Alcoholism. N Engl J Med 332:424-428, 1995

Nelson, S, Belknap SM,Carlson, RW, Dale D, DeBoisblanc B, Farkas S, Fotheringham N, Ho H, Marrie T, Movahhed M, Root R, and John Wilson for the CAP Study Group. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Filgrastim as an Adjunct to Antibiotics for Treatment of Hospitalized Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia. JID 178:10750-.1998.

JM Gaviria, SM Garrido, JH van Burik, DC Dale, RK Root. Impaired Neurtophil-Mediated Activity Against Aspergillus fumigatus. In patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplanation: Restoration of function by Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF), Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), or Interferon-y (IFN-y) in Vitro.

Gaviria JM, van Burik, JH, Dale DC, Liles CW, Root RK. Modulation of Neutrophil-Medicated Activity Against the Pseudohyphal Form of Candida albicans by Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) JID 179:1301-4, 1999

Gaviria JM, van Burik JH, Dale DC, and Root RK. Comparisons of Interfern-g, Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor, and Granulocyte-g Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor for Priming Leukocyte-Mediated Hyphal Damage of Opportunistic Fungal Pathogens. JID 179:1038-41, 1999

Burack JH, Irby DM, Carline JD, Larson EB, and Root RK: Teaching Compassion and Respect. Attendings’ Responses to Problematic Behavior. JGIM 14:49-55, 1999

Root RK, Gaviria JM, Grohskopf LA, and Barnes R. Successful Treatment of Rhinocerebral Zygomycosis: A Combined Strategy Approach. Clin Infect Dis 28:160-161, 1999

Nelson S, Heyder, AM, Stone J, Bergeron MG, Daugherty S, Peterson G, Fotheringham N, Welch W, Milwee S, Root R. A randomized controlled trial of filgrastim for the treatment of hospitalized patients with multilobar pneumonia. JID 182: 970-3, 2000

Park DR, Sherbin VL, Goodman MS, Root RK, et al. The Etiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia at an Urban Public Hospital: The Influence of HIV Infection and Initial Severity of Illness. JID 184(3):268-77, 2001

Nelson S, Welch W, Root RK, et al. Multicenter Double-blind, placebo-controlled Study of the Use of Filgrastim in Patients Hospitalized with Pneumonia and Severe Sepsis. Crit Care Med. (2):367-73, 2003

Invited Editorials and Reviews

Adler LM and Root RK: Granulocyte transfusion therapy: Experimental basis and clinical applications. JAOA 76:595, 1977.

Root RK and Cohen MS: Microbicidal mechanisms of neutrophils and eosinophils. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 3:565-598, 1981.

Root RK: Host defenses against infection: importance of phagocytic mechanisms from the study of genetic disorders of leukocyte function. Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine 58:669-680, 1982.

Root RK and Nation CL: Legislated Limits for Housestaff Training. Ant. Int. Med. 116:694-696, 1992.

Root RK, Dale DC: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophange colony- stimulating factor: comparisons and potential use in the treatment of infections in nonneutropenic patients. J Infect Dis. 179(2):S342-52, 1998

Sheffield JVL, Root RK. Smoking and Pneumococcal Infection. NEJM:342;732-734, 2000

Stevens DL, Root RK, Rosen H, Dale DC: Differential white blood cell count: underutilized or overrated. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 13(3):205-207, 2000

Gaviria JM, Garrido SM, Root RK: Clinical use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in infectious diseases. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 21:302-22, 2001

c. Other Publications

Root RK, and Stossel TP: Functional comparison of Chediak-Higashi syndrome and chronic granulomatous

Miller ME and Root RK: Recurrent infections due to disorders of the inflammatory host defense. In Seminars in Medicine: An Audio-Visual Journal, Vol. 1, No. 3, November-December 1972, Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, MD.

Root RK: Comparison of other defects of granulomatous disease. In The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance, Dayton (ed.), Raven Press, 1975.

Root RK: Fungal and parasitic infections. In Diagnosis of Treatable Diseases, Horowitz and Magee (eds.), Lea and Febiger, 1976.

Enterococcal meningitis: Combined vancomycin and rifampin therapy. The American Journal of Medicine 68:449-451, 1980.

Root RK, Molavi A, Metcalf J, Malech H, Isturiz RI: Interactions between antibiotics and neutrophils in the killing of staphylococci. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 67:247-249, 1981.

Cohen MS, Metcalf JA, and Root RK: Regulation of oxygen metabolism in human granulocytes: relationship between stimulus binding and oxidative response using plant lectins as probes. Blood 55:1003-1010, 1980.

Greene WH, Colclough L, Anton A, and Root RK: Lectin-dependent neutrophil-mediated cytotoxicity against chicken erythrocytes: A model of non-myeloperoxidase mediated oxygen-dependent killing by human neutrophils. Journal of Immunology 125:2727, 1980.

54. Cohen MS, Isturiz RI, Malech HL, and Root RK: Fungal infection in chronic granulomatous disease: the importance of the phagocyte in defense against fungi. American Journal of Medicine 71:59-66, 1981.

Cohen MS, Ryan JL, and Root RK: The oxidative metabolism of thioglycollate elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages: the relationship between oxygen, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide and the effect of monolayer formation. Journal of Immunology 127:1007-1011, 1981.

Parry MF, Root RK, Metcalf JA, Delaney KK, Kaplow LS, and Ricar WJ: Myeloperoxidase deficiency: prevalence and clinical significance

Thier S, Henderson L, and Root RK: Renal transplantation: medical management of the transplant recipient. In Kidney, Brenner and Rector (eds.), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1976.

Root RK and Metcalf JA: Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation by human granulocytes: interrelationships and activation mechanisms. In Movement, Metabolism and Bactericidal Mechanisms of Phagocytosis. (Eds.) Rossi F, Patriarca PL, and Romeo D, Piccin (Publisher), London, 1977, pp. 185-199.

Root RK and Hierholzer W: Infectious disease. In Clinical Pharmacology: Basic Principles in Therapeutics. (Ed.) Melmon and Morrelli. MacMillan, 1978.

Zakhireh B, Block LH, and Root RK: Neutrophil function and host resistance. Infection 7:2-12, 1979.

Root RK: Humoral immunity and complement in infection. In Principles and Practices of Infectious Disease. (Eds.) Mandell GL, Douglas RG, Jr., and Bennett JE. Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY, 1979.

Root RK: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes in host defense. In Microbiology. 1981.

Coleman DL and Root RK: Pulmonary infections in Southeast Asian refugees. Clinics in Chest Medicine 2:133-143, 1981.

Kliger AS, Maunder R, Reynolds H, and Root RK: Methanol intoxication. Medical Times 109:60-73, 1981.

Root RK: The macrophage in host defense. In Microbiology, (Ed.) Schelissinger D. American Society for Microbiology. Washington, D.C., 1981, pp. 176-180.

Ryan JL and Root RK: Activation of macrophages. In Microbiology, (Ed.) Schelissinger D. American Society for Microbiology. Washington, D.C., 1982, pp. 370-373.

Yourtee EL and Root RK: Antibiotic-neutrophil interactions in microbial killing. Advances in Host Defense I:187-209, 1982.

Root RK: Genetic disorders of leukocyte function: What they tell us about normal antimicrobial mechanisms of human phagocytic cells. Klinische Wochenschrift 60:731-734, 1982.

Yourtee EL and Root RK: Effect of antibiotics on phagocyte-microbe interactions. In Contemporary Issues in Infectious Diseases. New Dimensions in Antimicrobial Therapy. (Eds.) Root RK and Sande MA, Churchill Livingstone, Inc., New York, 1983, pp. 243-275.

Root RK: Host Defenses in the Human Neonate: Ontogeny, Role in Protection Against

Infection, Possibilities for Augmentation During Sepsis. Mead Johnson Symposium in

Perinatal and Developmental Medicine, December 5-9, 1982, Marco Island, Florida

Hickstein DD and Root RK: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes: function and role in sepsis. In Contemporary Issues in Infectious Diseases. Septic Shock. (Eds.) Root RK and Sande MA, Churchill Livingstone, Inc., New York, 1985, pp. 61-82.

Root RK. Infectious diseases: pathogenetic mechanisms and host responses. In Pathophysiology (Eds.) Smith LH and Thier SO., Saunders, New York, 1985, pp. 139-172.

McGee S and Root RK: Respiratory infections complicating immunodeficiency. Contemporary Issues in Infectious Diseases: Respiratory Infections, Eds. Root RK, Hudson L, Sande MA. Churchill Livingstone, Inc., New York, 1985, p. 71-107.

Root RK and Ryan JL: Humoral Immunity and Complement. In Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Eds. Mandell GL, Douglas, RG Jr, Bennett JE., 2nd Ed., J. Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, New York. 1985, p. 31-57.

Petersdorf RG and Root RK: Chills and Fever. In Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. Eds. Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Petersdorf RG, Wilson JD, Martin JB and Fauci AS. 11th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, 1987, p. 50-57.

Petersdorf RG and Root RK: An Approach to Infectious Diseases. In Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. Eds. Braunwald E., Isselbacher JK, Petersdorf RG, Wilson JD, Martin JB and Fauci AS. 11th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, 1987, p. 455-459.

Root RK: The Compromised Host. In Cecil's Textbook of Medicine. Eds. Wyngaarden JB, Smith LH, and Plum F. 18th Ed. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1988, p. 1529-1538.

Heinzel FP and Root RK: Antibodies. In Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Eds GL Mandell, RG Douglas, Jr. and JE Bennett. 3rd Ed., Churchill Livingstone, New York, New York, 1990, p. 41 - 61.

Heinzel FP and Root RK: Introduction to Infectious Diseases: Pathogenic Mechanisms and Host Responses. In Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. Eds. Braunwald E., Isselbacher JK, Petersdorf RG, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Fauci AS and Root RK. 12th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, New York , 1991, p. 447-451.

Root RK and Petersdorf RG. Chills and Fever. In Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. Eds. Braunwald, E., Isselbacher JK, Petersdorf RG, Wilson D, Martin JB, Fauci AS and Root RK. 12th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, 1991, p. 125 - 133.

Root RK and Jacobs R : Septicemia and Septic Shock. In Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. Eds. Braunwald E., Isselbacher JK, Petersdorf RG, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Fauci AS and Root RK. 12th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, 1991, p.502 - 507.]-->

Reynolds HY and Root RK: Bronchiectasis and Broncholithiasis. In Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. Eds. Braunwald, E., Isselbacher JK, Petersdorf RG, Wilson JD,

Root RK: Leukocyte Adhesion Proteins: Their Role in Neutrophil Function. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, 1990, p. 207 - 226.

Greenberg, DL and Root RK: Clinical problem-solving. Decision making by analogy. N Engl J Med. 232:592-596, 1995.

Root RK. Cytokines and Pulmonary Infection. Part 1: Host-Pathogen Interactions in Pulmonary Infections. In American Thoracic Society, 1997, p. 21-37.

Root RK: The Two-faced Neutrophil: Host Defense Versus Tissue Injury. Milestone Medical Communications. American Thoracic Society Continuing Education Monograph Series 1997.

Gaviria JM, Dale DC, Root RK. Neutrophils: Function and Role in Sepsis Syndrome. Sepsis 2:107-117,1998.

Root RK, Dale DC. G-CSF and GM-CSF: Comparisons and potential for use in the treatment of infections in non-neutropenic patients. JID 179:S342-S352, 1999

Hartung T, Gaviria JM, Garrido SM and Root RK. G-CSF and GM-CSF. Cytokine Theraupeutics in Infectious Diseases. In Cytokine Therapeutics in Infectious Diseases Lippincott Williams & Wilkens, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 185-219, 2001

Root R. Infectious Disease: An Overview. In: Clinical Infectious Diseases: A Practical Approach, 1st ed. Root RK, Waldvogel F, Corey L, Stamm WE, eds. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 7-15, 1999.

Root R. Host Responses to Infection: Fever, Hyperthermia, and Hypothermia. In: Clinical Infectious Diseases: A Practical Approach, 1st ed. Root RK, Waldvogel F, Corey L, Stamm WE, eds. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 71-81, 1999.

Root R, Sanford J. Seletion of Antimicrobials for Treatment. In: Clinical Infectious Diseases: A Practical Approach, 1st ed. Root RK, Waldvogel F, Corey L, Stamm WE, eds. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 233-239, 1999.

Root R, Petersdorf R. Fever of Unknown Orgin. In: Clinical Infectious Diseases: A Practical Approach, 1st ed. Root RK, Waldvogel F, Corey L, Stamm WE, eds. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 459-469, 1999.

Mitchell P, Crittenden R, Howard, E, Lawson B, Root RK, and Schaad D. Interdisciplinary Clinical Educations: Evaluating Outcomes of An Evolving Model. Outcomes Management for Nursing Practice: 2000, V 4, No. 1

Hubel K, Dale DC, Root, RK and Liles CW. Clinical Applications of G-CSF and GM-CSF in the Treatment of Infectious Diseases. In Cytokines and Chemokines in Infectious Diseases Handbook, Editors Kolb M and Calandra T, Humana Press (in press)

Milton MJ, Garrido M and Root, RK. Clinical Use of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in Infectious Diseases. In Curr Clin Top Infect Dis 21:302-22, 2001